The EU reform of the payment services sector is now entering the last straightaway. One of the key changes launched by adoption of the revised Payment Services Directive (PSD2) was introduction of new types of payment services which require access to the user’s payment account using a type of interface defined in the regulations. The duties connected with such access rest on the providers operating the accounts, which have a choice between creating a dedicated “application programming interface” (API) or upgrading their existing user interface system. Both solutions are to a certain extent linked with the earlier known and controversial method of screen scraping.
What is screen scraping?
Screen scraping is automated harvesting by a computer program of data presented in visual form, usually not adapted for machine reading. The data obtained in this way may derive from various sources, such as websites displayed by a browser, computer programs, or mobile applications.
Continue reading “Can a user’s account be accessed through screen scraping?”
Regulatory sandboxes usually focus on financial regulations. However, these are not the only obstacle holding back innovative fintech start-ups. More extensive sandbox solutions that also cover data protection issues could make Poland a pioneer on the attractive global market supporting fintech.
Continue reading “Effective regulatory sandboxes: not only financial regulations, but also personal data protection”
New applications for blockchain, such as decentralised exchanges and unique tokens, bring new legal challenges. But sometimes even well-known uses of this technology present interesting legal issues never raised before or for some reason overlooked in the legal debate.
Undoubtedly cryptocurrencies and other crypto assets will not remain outside the legal system for long. Although they cannot be directly tied to many existing regulatory regimes, as we discussed in 2014 in our virtual currencies report, this does not mean that activity involving crypto assets will never be regulated. This is evident from the example of blockchain tokens, which in certain situations may be regarded as financial instruments.
Continue reading “Cryptocurrencies and sanctions”
This will not be another article about cryptocurrencies. Instead, I want to focus on a dangerous precedent we may have overlooked in the broader debate over cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrency exchanges and other enterprises operating on the cryptocurrency market have been targeted by the highly controversial practice of banks shutting down their accounts. This practice displays the universal threats arising along with the increasing digitalisation of commerce.
Continue reading “Terminating bank accounts of cryptocurrency exchanges: Why we should all be concerned”
In September 2016 we wrote an article (in Polish) on the relevance of EU law for the FinTech sector. FinTech has seen intensive growth on a global scale in the dozen or so months since then.
Continue reading “FinTech and blockchain in the European Union”
The Global Legal Hackathon last weekend (23–25 February 2018) offered an excellent opportunity to grasp the potential that can be released from cooperation between lawyers and IT specialists. Legal Tech solutions are more than just technological novelties. They are solutions that can protect our legal system against a serious crisis.
Continue reading “Why do we need Legal Tech? A few thoughts following the Global Legal Hackathon”